Heart Attack – its Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, and Prevention

Heart Attack its Symptoms, Causes, Treatment | Fusebay

A heart attack happens when a normal blood flow to the heart is blocked, and blockage preventing it from receiving the required oxygen. A blockage is typically caused by the buildup of lipids, cholesterol, and other substances in the heart’s arteries. Heart attack is also referred as a Myocardial infarction (MI). “Myo” stands for muscle, “cordial” stands for heart, and “infraction” means death of tissues because of lack of blood flow. Every day, thousands of people die because of heart attack.

This article will teach us about the symptoms of a heart attack, its causes, how to prevent it, what to do if someone has a heart attack and the aftereffects of a heart attack. 

Heart Attack Signs And Symptoms 

The most common symptoms of a heart attack are

  1. Discomfort or pressure on the heart. 
  2. Pain in the chest, arm, or beneath the breastbone. 
  3. Sweating, nausea, and vomiting.
  4. Tiredness or shortness of breath. 
  5. A fast or irregular heartbeat. 

Women may experience distinct symptoms than men, such as: 

  1. Discomfort in your stomach. It may feel like indigestion. 
  2. Pain in the neck, shoulders, or upper back. 

Angina is another symptom that can indicate a heart attack. You may feel pressure in your chest, pain, and discomfort in your shoulder, arm, and back. 

Heart Attack Causes 

The human heart requires a continuous oxygen supply for its normal functioning. If you have coronary artery disease, your heart arteries becomes narrow and blood cannot flow normally through it. A heart attack happens when your blood supply is bloacked. Food consumption also significantly influence the chances of a heart attack; foods which are high in fat, such as whole eggs can raise the body’s fat percentage. These fats will accumulate in the arteries to form plaques, which will deposit harder on the outer surface and have a soft impact on inside of the arteries.  

This hard plaque leads the outer shell to crack, also known as rupture. Platelets will gather at the crack and form a blood clot on the surface. A blood clot is a significant problem in the body because it prevents the flow of many tiny substances. If a blood clot forms around the arteries, the heart muscle will be starved of oxygen. The lack of oxygen causes muscle cells to die quickly and causes a permanent damage to the heart.

Soon after the cardiac arrest, the human heart begins to come back on its normal state. It may take eight weeks for a heart to heel. However, the damaged tissues will not perform the functions properly as they are doing before the heart attack. 

What Should We Do If We Have A Heart Attack? 

There are many precautionary measures to treat someone who has had a heart attack. The procedures are simple, quick, and accessible to everybody.  

If You Suffer a Heart Attack

To begin, dial 911. If you are a heart patient, keep 325 mg of aspirin with yourself. Aspirin reduces the risk of death from a heart attack by 25%.

If Someone Suffers From a Heart Attack

As quickly as possible, dial 911. We have two approaches for treating persons who have just had a cardiac arrest: 

CPR and AED. 

CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation). 

The CPR (Cardiopulmonary resuscitation) is a manual way of treating people with cardiac arrest.                 

CPR is performed in several steps.  

  1. Examine a person’s breath and pulse.  
  2. Lay down the patient and raise their chin slightly.  
  3. If the patient is not breathing, try blowing air into their mouth for at least 10 seconds.  
  4. If there is no breath and an irregular pulse rate, begin chest compression immediately.  
  5. Applying pressure to a patient’s chest using both hands. Try to push as hard as you can. It is recommended to push your hands around 30 times on the chest. For a youngster, don’t exert too much pressure, you can push with just one hand. For an adult, compress the chest with good and quick pressure.
  6. Continue CPR until an AED or an emergency responder arrives. 

AED (Automated External Defibrillators)

An AED is a machine that checks a patient’s health and heart problems and, if necessary, generates an electric shock. Although CPR cannot restart the heart, it can keep the patient alive until medical assistance arrived. The AED procedure involves 

  1. Check a patient’s breath and blow it out if it is absent or irregular.  
  2. Keep the chin slightly raised.  
  3. Ensure that the patient is in a dry environment and that no one is contacting the patient in any way.  
  4. Place the AED pads on the patient’s chest.  
  5. Attach one pad to the right side of the chest and the other to the left lungs. For adults, a little lower than the chest.
  6. Make sure that no one is in contact with the patient.  
  7. Start the AED machine. The machine will analyze the heart’s condition.  
  8. If necessary the shock will be generated through pads.
  9. Repeat CPR after the shock has been generated.  
  10. Compress a patient’s chest at least 30 times normally and with greater force.  
  11. Restart the AED equipment, and the machine will examine the patient’s heart status again. 
  12. Keep everyone away from coming into contact with the patient.  
  13. If shock is not recommended, check the patient’s breath; if they are breathing, move the patient sideways for at least 45 seconds to restore their health and regular breathing. 

Both AEDs and CPR are extremely important because they can preserve the lives of many cardiac arrest patients until medical help arrives. 

There are numerous websites where you can learn and become certified in AED. Check out this video to learn how to conduct AED:

Remember that doing something is always preferable then doing nothing; your small contribution could save many people’s lives. 

Factors That May Have A Role In A Heart Attack 

There are many factors which may lead to a heart attack. Although you cannot control a heart attack, you may control the circumstances contributing to it. By learning about these risk factors, one can reduce the chances of having a heart attack. These elements ranges from 

  1. Major risk factors. 
  2. Risk factors that can be changed. 
  3. Other risk factors

Major Risk Factors 

Some people have congenital disorder, which cannot be changed. These factors will considerably increases the chances of cardiac arrest. These factors are

  1. Increasing age

Older persons have a higher risk of cardiac arrest than younger people. People above the age of 65 are more likely to suffer with cardiac arrest because they process lower tendency to fight with diseases and maintain an active lifestyle

  1. Gender (Male)  

Men are more likely to suffer with cardiac arrest then women. As men tend to have more job stress and different kind of pressure then women.

  1. Hereditary factors (including race)  

Heredity is another factor that might lead to cardiac arrest. If your forefathers had a heart problem, you might get suffered from it.  

Factors That You Can Control

Some elements that you can control are as follows: 

  1. Tobacco/Smoking 

Smokers are more likely to suffer with cardiac arrest then non smokers. Smoking causes significant health problems, including heat issues and sudden heart attacks.   

  1. High blood cholesterol  

When you have high blood cholesterol, you are more likely to suffer from the heart diseases like cardiac arrest. High cholesterol will create a plaque in the arteries and block the blood flow and oxygen.

  1. High blood pressure

High blood pressure causes a person’s heart to work more, as the load on it will increase. A person’s heart become stiffer and thicker, which can also affect the kidneys. High blood pressure, along with obesity, smoking, and high blood cholesterol, increases the risk of strokes.  

  1. Physically inactivity

People who are physically active and exercise regularly remains healthy and tends to have fewer diseases than other. Exercising regularly will maintain your blood sugar level and lower the blood pressure in some people.  

To learn more about the factors you can control, go to https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/heart-attack/understand-your-risks-to-prevent-a-heart-attack. 

 Other Factors

Other factors contributing to cardiac arrest are taking too much stress, drinking alcohol, or other bad habits that can increase the risk of cardiac arrest.  

Which Food Is Best For Heart

Diet plays a significant role in heart health and can improve heart health. Multiple foods can help maintain blood pressure, cholesterol, and other risk factors for heart disease.  

Major foods are:

Leafy green vegetables 

Leafy green vegetables like spinach, kale, and collard greens are well know for heart diseases. These foods are good in vitamin K, which helps you protect your arteries and promote proper blood circulation. 

Whole grains    

Studies showed taking whole grains in your diet can reduce the risk of heart disease by 22%. Some grains are

  1. Brown rice 
  2. Whole wheat 
  3. Oats 
  4. Rye 
  5. Barley 


Berries such as 

  1. Strawberries 
  2. Blueberries
  3. Blackberries
  4. Raspberries 

are fill up with nutrients that play a central role in the health of heart. Berries are rich in antioxidants, studies showed eating them can reduce the risk factors for heart disease. 


Avocados are an excellent source of heart-healthy monosaturated fats, which reduce the level of cholesterol and lower risk factors for heart disease. The Avocados are rich in potassium. One avocado contains 975 milligrams of potassium. Getting at least 4.7 grams of potassium can decrease blood pressure by 8.0/4.1 mmHg, associated with a 15 % lower risk of stroke. 

Fatty Fish and fish oil 

Fatty fishes like salmon, mackerel, sardines, and tuna are loaded with omega-3 fatty acids, which have been studied extensively for their heart health benefits. Fish oil supplements have been shown to reduce blood triglycerides, improve arterial function and decrease blood pressure. 


Studies suggest that walnuts can help reduce cholesterol and blood pressure and may be associate with a lower risk of heart disease. Walnuts are a great source of fiber and micronutrients like magnesium, copper, and manganese. 


Beans are high in resistance to starch and have been shown to lower cholesterol levels and blood pressure.

Dark chocolates 

Dark chocolates are high in flavonoids. It is associate with a lower risk of developing plaque in the arteries and coronary heart disease. Consuming chocolates moderately may decrease the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. 


Tomatoes are rich in lycopene and have been associate with a lower risk of heart disease and stroke, also it can increase the HDL (good) cholesterol level. 


Almonds are high in fiber and monounsaturate fats and are linke to reduce cholesterol and belly fat. The Almonds are incredibly nutrient-dense, boasting many vitamins and minerals crucial to heart health.  


Heart attack is a disease that is more common nowadays; men are more likely to suffer from cardiac arrest than women. Blockage of oxygen in the heart, along with other factors, can cause cardiac arrest. By CPR and AED you can help the person who just have a cardiac arrest. You can also prevent cardiac arrest by learning about its contributing factors like age, smoking, or gender. Eating healthy foods and vegetables can decrease the chances of cardiac arrest.


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